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Co-firing with biomass at Edenderry Power Station

Exemption of Biomass Power Plants of capacity less than 15 MW from the need of taking Environment Clearance

Rajasthan (2015)

Biomass Resource Assessment for Haryana state

Vol 9, Issue 4- February 2016

Decentralized Application of Biomass Gasifier for thermal energy demand

Issue 6- Oct-Dec 2015

Biomass resource availability in Kerala

A Model of Fuel Supply Linkages at SLS Power, Nellore

Issue 5- July-Sept 2015

Vol 9, Issue 3- December 2015

Biomass Supply Management Using ERP Platform

Electricity Generation using Pine Needles in Uttarakhand

Amendments in the Tariff Policy

CERC approved modified procedure for implementation of REC Mechanism w.e.f. 05.11.2015

Rajasthan biomass fuel supply study 2015

Ensuring sustainable biomass supply at Malwa Biomass Power Project

Agro residue resource availability in Andaman & Nicobar

Cane trash as an alternate fuel resource for biomass cogeneration plant

Rescheduling of 2nd Renewable Energy Global Investors’ Meet & Expo (RE-INVEST) to 14 - 16 March, 2017

Biomass gasification based combined heat and power plant at Güssing, Austria

Maharashtra policy for grid connected power projects based on new and renewable energy sources – 2015

Biomass agro-residue resource availability in Tamil Nadu

Biomass agro-residue resource availability in Karnataka

Engine manufacturers for Producer Gas

Andhra Pradesh biomass resource study  

Uttarakhand biomass resource study  

CSP-Biomass hybrid plant In Spain - a case study  

Summary of Policies and Tariff for Promotion of Grid Connected Biomass Power Projects  

Tax Free Infrastructure Bonds for renewable energy
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Biomass potential

Forestry and energy plantations

As per the Forest Survey of India (FSI) 2013 assessment, the total forest and tree cover of India is about 78.92 million hectares, which is 24.01 per cent of the country’s total geographical area. The total growing stock of forest and trees outside forest is estimated as 5,658 million cubic meters which comprises 4,173 million cubic meters inside the forests and 1,484 million cubic meters outside the forests. While there is an increase in the total forest cover of the country, there is a decrease in the growing stock. The main reason for declining growing stock is the conversion of Moderately Dense Forests into Open Forest, which has resulted in severe depletion of growing stock, according to the FSI report 2013.


Fuelwood is the first biomass resource and, indeed, the first energy source to be used by human beings in igniting the first fire by rubbing sticks together. Forest trees have remained a major source for meeting domestic and industrial requirements, and this has affected an unsustainable utilization of wood. The demand gap is filled by ‘trees outside forests’, which include road-side plantations, orchards, trees growing in agro/farm forests and along canals, roads, railway lines, private land, wasteland, especially by Prosopis Juliflora (Vilayti Babul).


Energy plantation has been identified as one of the immediate economic solutions for harnessing biomass energy. Emphasis has been on growing energy plantations on wasteland to meet the fuelwood needs, without affecting agricultural land.


Agricultural biomass

On the basis of their origin, agriculture biomass can be classified as (a) field based and (b) process based. Field based residues are plant materials that remain in farm after removal of the main crop produce (e.g. straw, stalks, sticks, leaves, fibrous materials, roots, branches, twigs, etc). Whereas, process based residues (agro-industrial residues) are by products of post harvest processes of crops, namely, cleaning, threshing, sieving, crushing, etc. and can be in the form of husk, dust, or straws (e.g. groundnut shells, rice husk, bagasse, corn cobs, coconut shell, coir pith, etc.).


Owing to wide and varied geography - ranging from high mountain ranges to wetlands, myriad river systems and plains - a significant portion of the country’s land is fertile and suitable for agriculture food crops. India’s total arable land area of 159.7 million hectares (394.6 million acres) is the second largest in the world, after the United States, and the gross irrigated crop area of 82.6 million hectares (215.6 million acres) is the largest in the world. India has grown to become one of the top three global producers of a broad range of crops, including wheat, rice, pulses, cotton, peanuts, fruits, and vegetables.


State wise availability of major crops of India

Crop

States

Rice

Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal

Wheat

Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana

Bajra

Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra

Jowar

Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh

Sugarcane

Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka

Cotton

Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh

Groundnut

Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh

Oilseeds

Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra


Characteristics of biomass

The properties of biomass feedstock are among the key factors that influence the selection of the processing technology and its design, operation, efficiency, maintenance, etc. Therefore, characterization of biomass is the first step for efficient utilization of its energy potential.


Biomass Type

Ash Content
(% on dry basis)

Volatile Matter
(% on dry basis)

Fixed Carbon
(% on dry basis)

Calorific Value
(MJ/kg) (dry basis)

Arecanut shell

0.9

78.3

20.8

4,700

Coconut shell

1.9

79.9

18.2

3,600

Eucalyptus (wood)

1.2

81.0

17.8

4,300

Quercus semecarpifolia

2.0

31.1

28.6

4,500

Rubber

3.9

70.1

26.0

4,700

Subabul wood

1.0

85.2

13.8

4,700

Corn cob

1.1

82.1

16.8

3,700

Cotton stalk

14.6

68.5

16.9

3,900

Cotton shell

4.6

72.2

23.2

4,300

Groundnut shell

2.3

77.9

19.8

4,600

Sweet Sorghum stalk

9.5

78.5

12.0

4,400

Mustard stalk

8.2

77.4

14.4

4,400

Rice straw

15.5

72.7

11.8

3,400

Rice husk

13.2

65.3

19.2

3,200

Ragi straw

8.4

77.4

14.2

4,000

Sugarcane leaves

7.7

77.4

14.9

4,390

Sugarcane bagasse

22.1

70.9

7.0

4,500

Wheat straw

6.4

69.6

24.0

4,100

Sunflower stalk

1.9

76.5

21.6

4,400

Soyabean stalk

3.0

80.0

17.0

3,800

Biomass resource estimation

Biomass is an important renewable source of energy that accounts for nearly 75% of rural energy needs, and the rural population constitutes 70% of the total population of India. Although biomass meets a major part of the total energy requirements, it does not find an appropriate place in the overall energy balance of India, probably due to versatility and diversity of biomass sources, resulting in insufficient availability of documented data about availability, consumption and utilization patterns.


Under the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) has developed an electronic atlas, which provides an outlook of the biomass resources in the country with special reference to their potential for power generation. The Biomass Atlas is a graphical atlas of all the states in India with demography and landuse details at state, district and taluka levels. Estimated Biomass resource and associated power potential for the categories of agro and forest & wasteland residues are provided in the table below.


State

Agro-residues

Forest and wasteland residues

Biomass Generation (kT/Yr)

Biomass Surplus (kT/Yr)

Power Potential (MWe)

Biomass Generation (kT/Yr)

Biomass Surplus (kT/Yr)

Power Potential (MWe)

Andhra Pradesh

24871.7

4259.4

520.8

3601.0

2435.5

341.1

Arunachal Pradesh

400.4

74.5

9.2

8313.1

6045.4

846.3

Assam

11443.6

2436.7

283.7

3674.0

2424.4

339.4

Bihar

25756.9

5147.2

640.9

1248.3

831.9

116.3

Chhattisgarh

11272.8

2127.9

248.3

13592.3

9066.0

1269.2

Goa

668.5

161.4

20.9

180.7

119.2

16.7

Gujarat

29001.0

9058.3

1224.8

12196.3

8251.9

1150.0

Haryana

29034.7

11343.0

1456.9

393.3

259.5

36.3

Himachal Pradesh

2896.9

1034.7

132.6

3054.6

2016.1

282.2

Jammu and Kashmir

1591.3

279.5

37.1

11461.7

7564.6

1059.1

Jharkhand

3644.9

890.0

106.7

4876.6

3249.8

455.0

Karnataka

34167.3

9027.3

1195.9

10001.3

6601.0

924.3

Kerala

11644.3

6351.9

864.4

2122.1

1429.2

200.0

Madhya Pradesh

33344.8

10329.2

1373.3

18398.2

12271.2

1718.0

Maharashtra

47624.8

14789.9

1983.7

18407.1

12440.1

1741.6

Manipur

909.4

114.4

14.3

1264.0

834.3

116.7

Meghalaya

61.1

91.6

11.3

1705.9

1125.7

157.5

Mizoram

511.1

8.5

1.1

1590.9

1050.1

147.0

Nagaland

492.2

85.2

10.0

843.8

556.9

77.9

Odisha

20069.5

3676.7

429.1

9370.2

6084.6

851.8

Punjab

50847.6

24843.0

3172.1

398.5

263.0

36.9

Rajasthan

29851.3

8645.6

1126.7

9541.6

6297.4

881.6

Sikkim

149.5

17.8

2.3

531.5

350.7

49.1

Tamil Nadu

22507.6

8899.9

1159.8

4652.4

3070.6

429.9

Telangana

19021.5

2697.2

342.5

1550.7

1048.9

147.0

Tripura

40.9

21.3

3.0

1035.5

683.4

95.7

Uttar Pradesh

60322.2

13753.7

1748.3

5478.4

3672.1

514.1

Uttarakhand

2903.2

638.4

81.0

4559.2

3055.5

427.8

West Bengal

35989.9

4301.5

529.2

1430.7

949.1

133.0

Total

511040.9

145105.7

18729.9

155473.9

104048.1

14561.5


However, it is recommended that a detailed local biomass assessment study be conducted for large-scale biomass consuming project/installations, as there is constant change in ‘surplus’ availability at any given site due to competing usage of biomass consumption with time.


Power potential map

Separate maps indicating state wise biomass power potential in India from agro-residues and forest and wasteland residues are presented below.


Total Biomass Power Potential

The Biomass Knowledge Portal has been developed under the UNDP-GEF supported project "Removal of Barriers to Biomass Power Generation in India" implemented by MNRE
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Last updated on: May 20, 2016