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Biomass Resource Potential in Uttarakhand

The information is compiled from the “Renewable Energy Resource Mapping Study of Uttarakhand State” carried out by Uttarakhand Renewable Energy Development Agency (UREDA) in 2009-10.


Uttarakhand state is a hilly state with a total land area of 56,65,767 hectares (ha), out of which 34,65,057 ha, more than 61% of total land, is forest land. Around 39% of the remaining land area has the following land use categories: 13.5% is cultivable land (7,67,571 ha), 7.8% is multiple crop area land (4,44,796 ha), 6.7% is cultivable wasteland (3,83,612 ha), 5.5 % is non-cultivable land (3,12,581 ha), 4.1% (2,32,296 ha) is land for fodder and 2.7% is other than agricultural land (1,52,975 ha).


Biomass generation from crop residues

The major crops in Uttarakhand are Paddy, Wheat, Pulses, Mustard and Sugarcane. Urad and Masoor are main pulses produce in the state. Biomass generation from the above mentioned crops was calculated based on crop to residue ratio (CRR), taken from National Biomass Resource atlas prepared by CGPL, IISc Bangalore. On the other hand, district wise crop production data was taken from “Statistical Directory At A Glance 2008-09” published by Department of Economics & Statistics, Uttarakhand Government. Existing biomass consumption for the study was assessed on the basis of the consumption behaviour pattern as per the sample survey conducted in the state. Biomass has several uses in the form of fodder, fuel, manure, thatching, etc. Table below shows the survey results carried out in Uttarakhand.


Biomass consumption

Percentage, %

Fodder

51.5

Fuel

10.0

Manure

9.5

Thatching

1.0

Industrial Use

2.6

Total Consumed

74.6

Surplus biomass available

25.4


Table below presents the district wise CRR used for assessing the biomass generation in the Uttarakhand state.


District

Crop to residue ratio (CRR)

Haridwar

0.14

Udham Singh Nagar

0.42

Nainital

0.51

Dehradun

0.52

Paurigarhwal

1.84

Pithorgarh

1.96

Rudraprayag

2.29

Uttar Kashi

2.37

Champawat

2.46

Chamoli

2.59

Bageshwar

2.65

Tehrigarhwal

2.94

Almora

3.16

Source: National Biomass Resource atlas prepared by CGPL, IISc Bangalore


District wise crop production, biomass generation, biomass consumption and surplus biomass availability in tonnes per annum for the year 2008-09 is provided in the table below.


District

Area (ha)

Crop Production (‘000 TPA)

Biomass Generation (‘000 TPA)

Biomass Consumption (‘000 TPA)

Biomass Surplus (‘000 TPA)

Udham Singh Nagar

260.5

3,171.0

1,317.9

983.8

334.1

Almora

124.9

156.6

494.2

368.9

125.3

Tehrigarhwal

90.1

152.0

447.2

333.9

113.4

Haridwar

168.1

4,323.1

624.2

465.9

158.2

Pithoragarh

79.9

129.7

254.0

189.6

64.4

Chamoli

45.4

73.5

190.2

142.0

48.2

Nainital

81.7

598.5

304.7

227.4

77.2

Uttar Kashi

47.5

79.7

189.2

141.2

48.0

Dehradun

73.7

541.1

279.1

208.4

70.8

Paurigarhwal

124.7

126.6

232.9

173.9

59.0

Bagheshwar

47.6

55.1

145.9

108.9

37.0

Champawat

39.3

35.5

87.2

65.1

22.1

Rudraprayag

28.0

24.4

55.9

41.7

14.2

Total

1,212.4

9,466.9

4,622.6

3,450.7

1,171.8



Biomass generation from forests

The other major source of biomass in the state is from the tree species available in forests. There are around 190 million cubic metre trees available in the state. Different type of trees and their quantity are presented below.


Category

Quantity (‘000 m3)

Fir

2,783

Spruce

2,277

Blue Pine

1,125

Devdar

3,121

Cheed Pine

71,718

Conifer (mixed)

13,380

Conifer (semi - mixed)

27,343

Upland hardwoods

29,482

Sagon

2,186

Sal

20,888

Eucalyptus

1,259

Khair

345

Sheesham

579

Sain

817

Poplar

35

Ulpine pastures

619

Misc

10,850

Total

1,88,807


Biomass is not available from all the tree types. However one such available source is pine needles which are available in plenty in Uttarakhand.


Since transportation of pine needles is not easy, it was considered in the study that the production which is close to habitation near the road may only be used as a fuel resource, thus approximately 10% of the total biomass production is expected to be available for power generation. This study considered the biomass availability from pine trees as 6 tonnes per hectare. Based on this assumption, district wise availability of pine needles as fuel source is presented in the following table.


District

Area of pine forest in Reserved Forest (Ha)

Total pine needle available (‘000 MT)

Pine needle for power generation (‘000 MT/yr)

Udham Singh Nagar

N.A.

N.A

N.A

Almora

35,310.3

211.8

21.2

Tehrigarhwal

7,553.9

45.3

4.5

Haridwar

N.A

N.A

N.A

Pithorgarh

36,980.4

221.9

22.2

Chamoli (including Rudraprayag)

39,358.4

236.1

23.6

Nainital

33,038.6

198.2

19.8

Uttar Kashi

77,707.8

466.2

46.6

Dehradun

11,759.2

70.6

7.1

Paurigarhwal

35,161.1

210.9

21.1

Bageshwar

38,962.6

233.8

23.4

Champawat

27,291.1

163.7

16.4

Rudraprayag (included in Chamoli)

N.A

N.A

N.A

Total

3,43,123.6

2,058.7

205.9

Source: Forest Department



Biomass generation from Lantana

It is estimated that about 2,00,000 ha of land in Uttarakhand is grown with lantana vegetation. The study considered the average yield of dry lantana as 2 quintals/ha/year. In lantana vegetation, 40% of the plant weight is lantana leaves (0.8 quintals/ha/year), thus by calculation the available biomass from lantana leaves is about 16,000 MT per year.



Biomass generation from industries

Availability of rice husk and bagasse

Taking reference from UREDA’s report “Renewable energy resource mapping in Uttarakhand”, the average capacity of rice mills in the state was taken at 2.38 tonnes per hour (TPH). The rice mills average operating hours and days were taken as 12 hours per day and 248 days respectively. Assuming rice husk generation at 24%, total husk generation from 112 mills were calculated as 1,90,388 MT per year. Out of which based on the consumption survey, the surplus husk available for power generation was about 1,42,791 MT per year.


The report also mentioned about 10 sugar factories in the state with total installed capacity of 40,000 Tonnes crushing per day (TCD) and 120 average operating days. At a 86% PLF, the annual crushing capacity of the mills were about 41,48,575 MT, which can generate about 12,86,058 MT of bagasse per year from all ten sugar factories of Uttarakhand. This quantity of biomass is sufficient for generation of 101 MW.



Total power potential from biomass in Uttarakhand

Power generation potential from biomass resources has been calculated on the basis of Average calorific value (ACV) and Station Heat Rate (SHR) for different types of biomass taken from Central Electricity Regulatory Commission. Based on these values, average fuel consumption (in kg per kWh) has been arrived. Accordingly the quantum of average fuel consumption (in MT) for generating one MW power on annual basis has been calculated. It was found that Uttarakhand state has a power generation potential of 262.3 MW from different biomass sources.

A summarized table for the biomass potential for power generation is provided below.


a) Power potential from Agro residues and woods

District

Biomass  surplus from crop residues (‘000 MT)

Biomass surplus from woods (‘000 MT/yr)

Total surplus Biomass from crop residues & woods (‘000 MT)

Power generation potential (MW)

Udham Singh Nagar

334.1

N.A

334.1

34.8

Almora

125.3

21.2

146.5

15.2

Tehrigarhwal

113.4

4.5

117.9

12.3

Haridwar

158.2

N.A

158.2

16.5

Pithorgarh

64.4

22.2

86.6

9.0

Chamoli

48.2

23.6

71.8

7.5

Nainital

77.2

19.8

97

10.1

Uttar Kashi

47.9

46.6

94.5

9.8

Dehradun

70.7

7.1

77.8

8.1

Paurigarhwal

59.0

21.1

80.1

8.3

Bageshwar

37.0

23.4

60.4

6.3

Champawat

22.1

16.4

38.5

4.0

Rudraprayag

14.1

N.A

14.1

1.5

Total

1,171.8

205.9

1,377.5

143.4



b) Power potential from other sources

Type

Surplus biomass (‘000 MT)

Power Potential (MW)

Lantana

16,000

1.7

Rice husk

1,42,791 

15.7

Bagasse

12,86,058

101.5

Total biomass for power generation

118.9



c) Total power potential from all sources

Type

Power Potential (MW)

Agro residues and woods

143.4

Rice husk

15.7

Bagasse

101.5

Lantana

1.7

Total

262.3

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